NEO的下一步发展计划 | Whats Next for NEO

NEONEO智能经济2018-07-15 12:40:18  阅读 -评论 0

去年,我们在NEO社区的支持下完成了NEO 2.x的开发,NEO 2.x主要为NEO智能经济提供核心架构机制。现在又到了向前看的时候了,该考虑下一步计划了。下一步要做什么呢?简而言之,就是NEO 3.0,NEO 3.0的开发工作从上个季度(2018年第二季度)就开始了,已持续至今。

In the past year, together with the NEO community, we accomplished the development of NEO 2.x. NEO 2.x provided essential infrastructure mechanics of the NEO Smart Economy. Now, it's time to look ahead. What's next? The short answer is NEO 3.0, of which development started in the last quarter (Q2 2018).

NEO 3.0到底是什么?又包含哪些关键功能?今天就由NEO创始人兼核心开发者张铮文与大家分享NEO 3.0的最新功能与改进之处。

What is NEO 3.0? What are the key features of NEO 3.0? Today, NEO founder and core developer Erik Zhang shares with us the latest features and improvements of NEO 3.0. 


NEO3.0是一个全新版本的NEO平台,专门服务于企业级大规模应用。NEO 3.0具有较高TPS与稳定性,并提供智能合约扩展API与优化的经济与定价模型。最重要的是,NEO 3.0将彻底整改NEO的核心模块设计。

Erik Zhang: 

NEO 3.0 will be an entirely new version of the NEO platform, built for large scale enterprise use cases. It will provide higher TPS and stability, expanded APIs for smart contracts, optimized economic and pricing models, and much more. Most importantly, we will entirely redesign NEO's core modules.

1. 多方位改进

1. Various Improvements

1.1 提升TPS

1.1. Increasing TPS

要想在NEO上大规模运行分布式应用,就得提升TPS。我们将通过以下方式提升NEO 3.0的TPS。

Increasing the TPS is important if we want to run large-scale distributed applications on NEO. In NEO 3.0, we will increase the TPS in the following ways:






Refactor the code and core modules

Optimize the network protocol

Implement the feature manifest and permission system for NeoContract

Prepare for dynamic sharding

Detach state persistence and block persistence

1.2 漏洞修复

1.2. Bug fixes

在NEO 3.0中,我们将修复某些已知漏洞,并大幅提升系统的稳定性。

In NEO 3.0, we will fix some known bugs and significantly improve system stability.

2. 协议 

2. Protocol

2.1 调整经济模型

2.1. Adjusting the economic model


We designed a dual-token economic model for NEO, which has proven to be a very successful model. However, there were also problems: NEO was indivisible, and GAS could not be divided when paying for system fees (sys_fee). These issues were roadblocks for the utility of NEO and GAS tokens. To solve this problem, some adjustments to the economic model need to be applied. Some of the possible adjustments are:





A small increase in the supply of gas every year

Reward consensus nodes

Make NEO divisible

Allow gas to use the decimal part when being used for system fees


(This is suggestion only. This issue is being discussed at:

2.2 调整系统定价模型

2.2. Adjusting the system pricing model

对于开发者来说,昂贵的系统费用是其主要担忧。我们将对NEO 3.0的定价模型进行调整,这样可以大幅削减智能合约的运行与部署费用。

For developers, expensive system fees have become a primary concern. In NEO 3.0 we will make adjustments to the pricing model so that the cost of running and deploying smart contracts will be significantly cheaper.

3. 智能合约

3. Smart Contract

3.1 跨平台智能合约

3.1. Cross-platform smart contracts

如果智能合约能与NEO 3.0兼容,应该就能跨区块链平台执行。为了达到这一目标,我们不仅需要NeoVM的支持,也需要统一的智能合约API。此外,还需要一个专门的API进行平台检测。

Smart contracts should be able to be executed on different blockchain platforms, if they're made compatible with NEO 3.0. To achieve this, we need not only NeoVM support, but also unified smart contract APIs. In addition, we also provide an API for platform detection.




This allows the smart contract to detect the current platform at runtime.

3.2 功能清单与权限系统

3.2. Feature manifest and permission system


When a smart contract is deployed, it must explicitly declare the features and permissions it will use. When it is running, it will be limited by its declared list of features and permissions, and cannot make any behavior beyond the scope of the list.

3.3 原生合约

3.3. Native contracts


Native contracts are smart contracts that are not run in a virtual machine. Instead, it's built directly into the blockchain code. Native contracts can still expose their script hashes to other contracts, so that other contracts can invoke them.


Native contracts can allow for the interaction with NEO and GAS (and all global assets) as NEP-5 tokens. This introduces a unified approach for sending and receiving assets in smart contracts.

3.4 回调API

3.4. Callback APIs


Create callback functions for smart contracts or SYSCALL, and allow other contracts to perform tasks through callback functions, which can work with iterators.

3.5 其他新的API

3.5. Other new APIs

我们还将给NEO 3.0添加一些新的API,如下所示:

We will add some new APIs to NEO 3.0. Some APIs that may be added:

• System.Account.IsStandard

• System.Runtime.GetEntryContract

• System.Runtime.GetCallingContract

• System.Runtime.GetExecutingContract

• System.Runtime.GetInvocationCounter

• System.Runtime.GetNotifications

4. NeoVM

4. NeoVM

4.1 全解耦

4.1. Fully decoupled


Currently, contract invocations are made with the APPCALL instruction (and the corresponding stack isolation instruction), and NeoVM will directly look for the target contract. This is unreasonable because the list of smart contracts on the blockchain should not be directly visible to NeoVM. We need to create a new API to invoke contracts with SYSCALL, and discard the original APPCALL instructions. This would introduce two additional benefits:


We do not need to do extra work to implement stack isolation, because invoking a new contract in SYSCALL will start a new virtual machine.


We can easily implement native contracts.

4.2 全局变量支持

4.2. Support for global variables


Currently, NeoVM does not support global variables. The code with global variables will fail to compile. This is because NeoVM is a stack based virtual machine, with no storage methods for global variables. This makes it difficult to compile smart contracts written in high-level languages. To solve this problem, we need to add a global array for the virtual machine to store all the global variables. We also need to add a new opcode (“GLOBAL”) which pushes the global array to the evaluation stack. Then we can use PICKITEM and SETITEM to access global variables.

5. 结论

5. Conclusion

NEO 3.0将焕然一新,且会更有利于智能经济的发展。未来我会介绍NEO 3.0的更多功能,并且还会发布一系列深层次技术分析文章。

NEO will be reborn in 3.0 and will better serve the Smart Economy. In the future I will present more features of NEO 3.0, and publish a series of articles detailing technical points more in-depth.

目前所有NEO 3.0的改进提案都已经在GitHub上开源 (GitHub链接:,欢迎社区对这些提案进行讨论并提出宝贵建议。

You can see all the current improvement proposals for NEO 3.0 on the GitHub. (Github link: And we warmly welcome discussions and suggestions from the community on these proposals.



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